Exercises

Gender

Psychoanalytic theorists contend that women are more related and more affiliated with others than men, whereas men are more autonomous and more individuated [Cho90] [Mil76]. "Cultural feminist" theories posit women's "self-in-relation," in contrast to men's greater autonomy [Sco88]. They claim that women show more concern for an ethic of care and responsibility, while men focus more on an ethic of rights based on justice and fairness [Gil82]. Evolutionary psychologists postulate that women probably gained evolutionary advantage by caring for the welfare of in-group members. Men probably gained evolutionary advantage by attaining and exploiting status and power.

Social role theorists attribute gender differences to the culturally distinctive roles of men and women. Parsons and Bales hold that the allocation of women to nurturing roles reduces competition and preserves family harmony. Women assume more "expressive," person-oriented roles; men engage in and learn more "instrumental," task-oriented roles [Par55]. Similarly, Bakan proposes “agency” and “communion” to distinguish men’s and women’s modes of social and emotional functioning [Bak66]. Socialization also contributes: societies typically socialize boys and girls to occupy different social roles and to affirm different life goals and sanction them for failing to do so [Wil90].

These theories share a view of women as more relational, expressive, and communal, and of men as more autonomous, instrumental, and agentic. These dissimilarities in men’s and women’s motives and orientations are likely to find expression as different value priorities.

Use the extract Human Values to solve the exercises below. The exercises could be solved using data from both ESS 1 and ESS 4. The solutions refer to the results obtained using ESS 1. When you have completed the exercises, either focusing upon 2002 (ESS 1) or 2008 (ESS 4), please investigate if you can say something about change from 2002 to 2008.)

  1. How do you expect gender to be related to the ten values? Which values do you think that women hold dearer than men and vice versa?
  2. Perform a correlation analysis between the values and gender. Are the correlations as you expected them to be? Please use both weights.
  3. Perform a linear regression analysis with gender as the independent variable and the variable with the strongest correlation as the dependent variable. Please use both weights.
  4. Use the results from the regression, and put the numbers into the equation for the linear regression line: y = a + bx.
  5. What value does this model predict for women on the value variable? What about men? How are these numbers compared to the grand mean on the value variable?
  6. How much of the variation in the value variable is explained by gender alone?
    Solutions
    1) Example, benevolence: One hypothesis could be that benevolence is more important for women because of the in-group focus of benevolence values.
    2) Weight: Switch on the combined weight. Correlation: Click “Analysis” on the menu. Select “Correlation”. Find the gender variable and the ten values in the variable list. Include all these variables in the analysis. Example, benevolence: The correlation between gender and benevolence is positive. Because the gender variable is coded 0 = male and 1 = female, a positive correlation means that benevolence is more important for women. This is as expected.
    3) Regression: Click “Analysis” on the menu. Select “Regression”. Use benevolence as the dependent variable and gender as the independent variable in the regression.
    4) benevolence = 0,55 + 0,22*gender
    5) Predicted value for women (women are coded 1): W_benevolence = 0,55 + 0,22*1 = 0,77. Predicted value for men (men are coded 0): M_benevolence = 0,55 + 0,22*0 = 0,55. The regression predicts that men will have a value less than the grand mean, and that women will have a value larger than the grand mean.
    6) The R-square expresses the amount of explained variance, or the predictive power of the model. This value is approximately 0,03, and that means that 3 % of the variation in benevolence is explained by gender.

Education1

The further one goes in school, the more likely one is to experience freedom from close supervision, rewards and demands for independent thought and complex problem-solving, encouragement of intellectual flexibility, and questioning of accepted truths. Education provides knowledge and skills that enhance people’s confidence and efficacy in coping with uncertainties and help them find financially more secure jobs. But higher education sometimes encourages exploring unique, intellectual interests rather than conventional success. Presumably, education also contributes to recognising and appreciating the diversity of ideas and behaviour in the world. This is particularly likely at the level of higher education.

Use the extract Human Values to solve the exercises below. The exercises could be solved using data from both ESS 1 and ESS 4. The solutions refer to the results obtained using ESS 1. When you have completed the exercises, either focusing upon 2002 (ESS 1) or 2008 (ESS 4), please investigate if you can say something about change from 2002 to 2008.)

  1. How do you expect education to be related to the ten values? Which values are more prominent among people with higher education?
  2. Test your expectations by performing a correlation analysis. Please use both weights.
  3. Perform a linear regression analysis with education as the independent variable and one of the value variables as the dependent variable. Please use both weights. Interpret the results.
  4. Determine which of the three variables: age, gender or education, most strongly influences the importance of hedonism values, that is, the priority people give to them. Please use both weights.
  5. How strong is the predictive power of the full model including the three predictors? That is, how much of the variance in hedonism values does the model account for?
    Solutions
    10) Weight: Switch on the combined weight. Multivariate regression: Click “Analysis” on the menu. Select “Regression”. Use hedonism as the dependent variable and gender, age and education as independent variables in the regression. When comparing the effects of several independent variables, one should look at the standardized coefficients, the Beta. Age is the variable with the strongest effect on hedonism, Beta = - 0,33. This means that older people give less priority to hedonism.
    11) The full model with three independent variables is able to explain 12 percent of the variation in hedonism (R square = 0,12).

Final remarks

This chapter on basic antecedents has dealt with three of many probable influences on value priorities. Others include the parenting we each receive [Kas02], our temperaments and abilities, our current friends and those with whom we grew up, the cultural environment, and the political and economic systems in which we live. More broadly, whatever affects the life circumstances to which we must adapt can influence value priorities.

Our values are not merely passive recipients of influence. Value priorities cannot turn back the clock on age and they rarely lead to changes in gender.2 But people’s values do affect the level of education they attain; priorities for self-direction and achievement vs. conformity and tradition values promote persistence through higher education. Thus, some of the correlation between values and education reflects reciprocal influence. Reciprocal influence also holds for many of the other life circumstances that affect values. Our value priorities influence whether we develop particular abilities, choose particular friends, mates, jobs, and travel opportunities, and even whether we move to settings with different political, economic, or religious systems. These value-based choices, in turn, create life circumstances to which we then adapt our values.

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Footnotes

References