# Computing Scores for the Higher-order (HO) Values

Table 5.1 lists the items and variable names included in each higher-order value. The numbers are those of the items as ordered from 1-21. Because the four higher-order value types are composed of 4-6 items, it is reasonable to expect their alphas to be somewhat higher than the alphas of the ten basic values. However, the wider range of concepts included in each higher-order value may limit their internal consistency to some extent.

Table 5.1. The Higher-order Value, item number and variable name*
Higher-order Value Items in Index Variable Name
Openness to Change 1,11,6,15 (10,21) ipcrtiv, impfree, ipmdiff, ipadvnt,(ipgdtim, impfun)
Conservation 5,14,7,16,9,20 impsafe, ipstrgv, ipfrule, ipbhprp, ipmodst, imptrad
Self-enhancement 2,17,4,13 imprich, iprspot, ipshabt, ipsuces
Self-trancendence 3,8,19,12,18 ipeqopt, ipudrst, impenv, iphlppl, iplyfr

*The two hedonism items are placed in parentheses because hedonism shares elements of both Openness to change and Self-enhancement, but is closer to openness in most cases.

Use the data you downloaded in chapter four. If you have not done the exercises in chapter four, you must go back and solve the exercises 1, 2, 3 and 4.

1.  Find Cronbach’s alpha for each of the higher-order values. SPSS

Please note that the recoded items are used in the following syntax:

*RELIABLITY ANALYSIS – HIGHER-ORDER VALUES.
*Openness to change (one analysis for each HO value, replace the variables).
RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=nipcrtiv nimpfree nimpdiff nipadvnt nipgdtim nimpfun
/FORMAT=NOLABELS
/SCALE(ALPHA)=ALL/MODEL=ALPHA.
2. Compute the indexes for the higher-order values. Use the recoded value items. SPSS
*Compute higher-order values, hedonism is put together with openness.
*Logical maximum = 6, max is obtained when a respondent has answered 6 on all the items indexing the HO value.
*Logical minimum = 1, min is obtained when a respondent has answered 1 on all items indexing the HO value.
*Create higher-order values.
Compute OTC = Mean(nimpdiff, nipadvnt, nipcrtiv, nimpfree, nimpfun, nipgdtim).
Compute CON = Mean(nipmodst, nimptrad, nipbhprp, nipfrule, nimpsafe, nipstrgv).
Compute Self_tr = Mean(niphlppl, niplylfr, nipeqopt, nipudrst, nimpenv).
Compute Self_en = Mean(nimprich, niprspot, nipshabt, nipsuces).
execute.
VARIABLE LABELS
OTC 'Openness to change'
CON 'Conservation'
Self_tr 'Self-transcendence'
Self_en 'Self-enhancement'.
EXECUTE.
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