# Exercises 2.1 - 2.2

## Exercise 2.1

1. Countries associated with different work-family regimes are likely to feature different attitudes to gender equality. Consider Denmark, Belgium and Greece and suggest a hypothesis for which country will display (on average) a more favourable attitude to gender equality.
2. Test your hypothesis by calculating the mean response to ‘Men should take as much responsibility as women for the home and children’.

### Procedure:

• Create a subset of countries from the file including Denmark, Belgium and Greece.
• Examine the distribution of the variable (‘Men should take as much responsibility as women for the home and children’) and calculate the mean for each country.

### Questions:

1. Does a high value indicate a preference for gender equality?
2. Do the differences among countries in the mean scores correspond to your hypothesis? Explain.
Nesstar
• Open the dataset Family, Gender and Work
• Click the ‘Tabulation’ tab
• Click the icon for weighting, and select ‘dweight’
• Click the variable ‘country’ and select ‘Add to row’
• Click the country tab above the table, select ‘Custom selection’ and choose Denmark, Belgium and Greece
• Click the variable ‘Men should take as much responsibility as women for the home and children’ and select ‘Add as measure’
SPSS syntax
*You need to have a copy of SPSS installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.
*Open SPSS by clicking on the appropriate link.
*Open the ESS data by clicking ‘File’, ‘Open’, and ‘Data’ on the SPSS menu bar before you select the folder and the data set.
*Open a new syntax window by clicking ‘File’, ‘New’, and ‘Syntax’ on the SPSS menu bar.
*You can copy the syntax below and paste it into the syntax window in SPSS.
*Execute the syntax using the 'Run' option on the menu bar.

*Comments on commands start with an asterisk and end with a dot.

*Commands must always end with a dot.

*The following command causes the cases to be weighted by the design weight variable 'dweight'.

WEIGHT BY dweight.

*Create filter variable - only include respondents from Belgium, Denmark and Greece.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=(cntry = 'BE' | cntry = 'DK' | cntry = 'GR').
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'cntry = BE or DK or GR (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE.

SORT CASES BY cntry.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY cntry.

DESCRIPTIVES
VARIABLES=mnrsphm
/STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX.

*Turn off the split file and weight, and select all cases.

SPLIT FILE OFF.
WEIGHT OFF.
USE ALL.
Sample Solution

### Problem

Hypothesis: the most favourable attitudes to gender equality will be found in Denmark (representing the individual-independence regime) and the least favourable attitudes will be found in Greece (characterised by a traditional family-dependence regime).

### Answers

1. No. High values indicate a low preference for gender equality as they express disagreement with the statement that men should take more responsibility for the home and children.
2. The findings appear to be in line with the hypothesis, as the lowest mean score (more egalitarian) is found in Denmark, the highest mean score is in Greece, and the mean score for Belgium is in between.

## Exercise 2.2

1. For the countries studied in Ex. 2.1, suggest a hypothesis for the period of time women stay at home full-time to care for children. Your hypothesis should state the country in which you would expect to find the highest proportion, and in which the lowest proportion, of women who do not stay at home for this purpose.
2. Test your hypothesis using the variable ‘Total time spent full-time at home caring for your children’.

### Procedure:

• Select women only (Gender = 0).
• Examine the frequency distribution of the variable for each country.

### Questions:

1. What is the relative frequency of women who did not stay home full-time to care for children? (Alternatively, compare the relative frequency of women who stayed at home for more than four years to care for children).
2. Interpret the results in light of your hypothesis.
Nesstar
• Open the dataset Family, Gender and Work
• Click the ‘Tabulation’ tab
• Click the icon for weighting, and select ‘dweight’
• Click the variable ‘country’ and select ‘Add to column’
• Click the country tab above the table, select ‘Custom selection’ and choose Denmark, Belgium and Greece
• Click the variable ‘Gender’ and select ‘Use as filter’, select women from the tab above the table
• Click the variable ‘Total time spent full-time at home caring for your children’ and select ‘Add to row’
SPSS syntax
*You need to have a copy of SPSS installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.
*Open SPSS by clicking on the appropriate link.
*Open the ESS data by clicking ‘File’, ‘Open’, and ‘Data’ on the SPSS menu bar before you select the folder and the data set.
*Open a new syntax window by clicking ‘File’, ‘New’, and ‘Syntax’ on the SPSS menu bar.
*You can copy the syntax below and paste it into the syntax window in SPSS.
*Execute the syntax using the 'Run' option on the menu bar.

*Comments on commands start with an asterisk and end with a dot.

*Commands must always end with a dot.

* The following command causes the cases to be weighted by the design weight variable 'dweight'.

WEIGHT BY dweight.

*Create filter variable - only include women from Belgium, Denmark and Greece.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=(cntry ='BE' | cntry ='DK' | cntry ='GR') & gender = 0.
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'cntry = BE or DK or GR & gender = 0 (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE .

SORT CASES BY cntry.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY cntry.

FREQUENCIES
VARIABLES=flthmcc
/ORDER= ANALYSIS.

*Turn off the split file and weight, and select all cases.

SPLIT FILE OFF.
WEIGHT OFF.
USE ALL.
Sample Solution

### Problem

Hypothesis: In societies characterised by the family-dependence regime, institutional arrangements aimed at supporting women’s leave are weak, and working women are likely to return to the labour market shortly after childbirth. Both the state-dependence and the individual-independence regimes support women’s leave, and in the former women are more likely to be encouraged to carry out the traditional female caring role and remain at home with young children.

### Answers

1. In Belgium, 24.2% of mothers reported that they did not stay at home full-time because of children. The figures for Denmark and Greece are 16.2% and 36.7%, respectively. Looking at those who stayed at home for four years or more to care for children, we find 25.4% (9.1 + 16.3) in Belgium, 15.3% in Denmark and 24.2% in Greece.
2. The results generally support the hypothesis. The proportion of mothers who immediately returned to the labour market is higher in Greece than in the two other countries. The proportion of mothers who stayed at home to care for children for extended periods (four years or more) is lowest in Denmark.
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