# Exercises 3.3 - 3.4

## Exercise 3.3

1. Develop a hypothesis concerning the prevalence of women’s part-time employment in Belgium and Spain (refer to the regime types each country represents).
2. Test this hypothesis using the data.

### Procedure:

• Subset the data to include Belgium and Spain.
• Select working (work_sta=1) women only (gender = 0).
• Create a cross-tabulation with the variable part-time (partime) as the row variable and country as the column variable. Calculate the percentages within columns.

### Questions:

1. Do the results of the cross-tabulation refute or support your hypothesis?
Nesstar
• Open the dataset Family, Gender and Work
• Click the ‘Tabulation’ tab
• Click the icon for weighting, and select ‘dweight’
• Click the variable ‘Gender’ and select ‘Use as filter’, select women from the tab above the table
• Click the variable ‘Working status’ and select ‘Use as filter’, select those who are working
• Click the variable ‘Part-time’ and select ‘Add to row’
• Click the variable ‘country’ and select ‘Add to column’
SPSS syntax
*You need to have a copy of SPSS installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.
*Open SPSS by clicking on the appropriate link.
*Open the ESS data by clicking ‘File’, ‘Open’, and ‘Data’ on the SPSS menu bar before you select the folder and the data set.
*Open a new syntax window by clicking ‘File’, ‘New’, and ‘Syntax’ on the SPSS menu bar.
*You can copy the syntax below and paste it into the syntax window in SPSS.
*Execute the syntax using the 'Run' option on the menu bar.

*Comments on commands start with an asterisk and end with a dot.

*Commands must always end with a dot.

*The following command causes the cases to be weighted by the design weight variable 'dweight'.

WEIGHT BY dweight.

*Create filter variable - only include working women from Belgium and Spain.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=gender = 0 & work_sta = 1 & (cntry ='BE' | cntry ='ES').
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'gender = 0 & work_sta = 1 & (cntry = BE OR ES) (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE.

*SPLIT FILE splits the active dataset into subgroups that can be analysed separately.

SORT CASES BY cntry.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY cntry.

FREQUENCIES
VARIABLES=partime
/ORDER= ANALYSIS.

*Turn off the split file and weight, and select all cases.

SPLIT FILE OFF.
WEIGHT OFF.
USE ALL.
Sample solution

### Problem

Hypothesis: The state-dependence regime aims to incorporate women into the public sphere while maintaining their roles as the primary care-givers. In the family-dependence regime, there is little effort on the part of the state to accommodate the family and work roles of women. Based on these characteristics, one can expect a higher proportion of women to work part-time in Belgium than in Spain.

### Answers

1. The results support the above hypothesis. The proportion of working women in Belgium who work part-time is 48.7%, whereas the comparable figure for Spain is 20%.

## Exercise 3.4

To be able to carry out an Independent Samples Test, you need to have software (SPSS) installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.

1. Test the hypothesis that the form of employment (i.e. part-time vs. full-time) has greater consequences for women's earnings in the market-dependence regime than in the individual-independence regime.

### Procedure:

• Subset the data to include the UK and Sweden.
• Select working (work_sta=1) women only (gender = 0).
• Use the means procedure to compare hourly wages (inc_hr1) by part-time vs. full-time employment (partime) and by country.

### Questions:

1. Explain the rationale for the hypothesis stated above.
2. Which regime does each of the countries represent?
3. Do the results refute or support the hypothesis? Explain.
SPSS syntax
*You need to have a copy of SPSS installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.
*Open SPSS by clicking on the appropriate link.
*Open the ESS data by clicking ‘File’, ‘Open’, and ‘Data’ on the SPSS menu bar before you select the folder and the data set.
*Open a new syntax window by clicking ‘File’, ‘New’, and ‘Syntax’ on the SPSS menu bar.
*You can copy the syntax below and paste it into the syntax window in SPSS.
*Execute the syntax using the 'Run' option on the menu bar.

*Comments on commands start with an asterisk and end with a dot.

*Commands must always end with a dot.

*The following command causes the cases to be weighted by the design weight variable 'dweight'.

WEIGHT BY dweight.

*Create filter variable - only include working women from the United Kingdom and Sweden.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=gender = 0 & work_sta = 1 & (cntry ='GB' | cntry ='SE').
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'gender = 0 & work_sta = 1 & (cntry =GB or cntry =SE) (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE.

*SPLIT FILE splits the active dataset into subgroups that can be analyzed separately.

SORT CASES BY cntry.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY cntry.

T-TEST
GROUPS=partime(1 0)
/MISSING=ANALYSIS
/VARIABLES=inc_hr1
/CRITERIA=CIN(.95).

*Turn off the split file and weight, and select all cases.

SPLIT FILE OFF.
WEIGHT OFF.
USE ALL.
Sample solution

### Answers

1. The rationale for the hypothesis is that, in a society characterised by an individual-independence regime, efforts are made to reduce the penalty for part-time employment in order to encourage greater participation by women in the labour market and as a means of reducing gender inequality. Such mechanisms are expected to be weaker in the market-dependence regime.
2. Sweden is characterised by the individual-dependence regime. The UK is best characterised as having a market-dependence regime.
3. The results of the analysis support the hypothesis. There is no difference in the hourly earnings of women working part-time and those working full-time in Sweden. However, there is a large earnings gap in the UK in favour of women working full-time.
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