# Exercises 4.2 - 4.3

## Exercise 4.2

To be able to solve this exercise, you need to have software (SPSS) installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.

1. Who are likely to express more egalitarian gender-role attitudes, women or men? Explain.
2. Thinking of Greece, Belgium and Sweden, and based on the typology of gender regimes, in what country would you expect to find less egalitarian gender-role attitudes?
3. In which of the three countries would you expect to find the smallest difference in attitudes between women and men?

### Comment:

For this exercise, it will be necessary to create an index consisting of several gender-role items. It will be necessary to test the scaling properties of the index and to construct a new variable from the items comprising the index. The new variable will then be used to answer the questions above.

### Procedure:

• Create a subset including Greece, Belgium and Sweden.
• Use Cronbach’s α to test the reliability of using items G6 (‘wmcpwrk: Woman should be prepared to cut down on paid work for sake of family’), G7 (‘mnrsphm: Men should take as much responsibility as women for home and children’), and G8 (‘mnrgtjb: Men should have more right to job than women when jobs are scarce’) as indicators of gender-role attitudes. It is necessary to first reverse the order of the answers to item G7 (use the recode procedure to replace the value of 1 with 5, 2 with 4 etc.).
• Construct a new variable as the average of G6-G8.
• Use the T-test procedure to compare the mean gender-role attitudes of men and women (for all three countries together).
• Repeat the analysis for each country separately.

### Question:

1. Discuss the results of the analysis with reference to questions 1 to 4 listed above.
SPSS syntax
*You need to have a copy of SPSS installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.
*Open SPSS by clicking on the appropriate link.
*Open the ESS data by clicking ‘File’, ‘Open’, and ‘Data’ on the SPSS menu bar before you select the folder and the data set.
*Open a new syntax window by clicking ‘File’, ‘New’, and ‘Syntax’ on the SPSS menu bar.
*You can copy the syntax below and paste it into the syntax window in SPSS.
*Execute the syntax using the 'Run' option on the menu bar.

*Commands must always end with a dot.

*The following command causes the cases to be weighted by the design weight variable 'dweight'.

WEIGHT BY dweight.

*Reverse coding for G7.

RECODE
mnrsphm (1=5) (2=4) (3=3) (4=2) (5=1) into sameresp.
VARIABLE LABELS sameresp 'Men should take as much responsibility as women for home and children'.
VALUE LABELS sameresp 1 'Disagree strongly' 2 'Disagree' 3 'Neither agree nor disagree' 4 'Agree' 5 'Agree strongly'.
FORMATS sameresp (f2.0).
EXECUTE.

*Create filter variable - only include respondents from Greece, Belgium and Sweden living with partners.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=(cntry ='BE' | cntry ='GR' | cntry ='SE') & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1) .
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'cntry =BE or GR or SE and (marital=1 or lvgptn=1)(FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE.

RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=wmcpwrk mnrgtjb sameresp
/FORMAT=NOLABELS
/SCALE(ALPHA)=ALL/MODEL=ALPHA.

COMPUTE gndridl = mean (wmcpwrk,mnrgtjb,sameresp).
VARIABLE LABEL gndridl 'Gender ideology (index, mean of wmcpwrk,mnrgtjb,sameresp)'.
EXECUTE.

T-TEST
GROUPS=gender(1 0)
/MISSING=ANALYSIS
/VARIABLES=gndridl
/CRITERIA=CIN(.95).

*SPLIT FILE splits the active dataset into subgroups that can be analysed separately.

SORT CASES BY cntry.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY cntry.

T-TEST
GROUPS=gender(1 0)
/MISSING=ANALYSIS
/VARIABLES=gndridl
/CRITERIA=CIN (.95).

*Turn off the split file and weight, and select all cases.

SPLIT FILE OFF.
WEIGHT OFF.
USE ALL.
Sample Solution

### Problem

1. We would expect women to express more egalitarian views on average than men as part of a more general expectation of reaching parity with men in all spheres of life.
2. Given that Greece best fits the family-dependence regime, we would expect the gender-role attitudes in this country to be less egalitarian.
3. The smallest difference is expected in Sweden. Sweden is characterised by the individual-independence regime, which is premised on the ideology of minimising gender inequalities.

1. The gender-role items form a scale with moderate reliability (α = 0.59). Overall, we find that males and females do not differ much in their attitudes (mean = 3.50 for men and mean = 3.59 for women). However, the difference is statistically significant (t = -2.9), so we reject the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the mean scores for men and women. As expected, gender-role attitudes are least egalitarian in Greece and most egalitarian in Sweden (high scores represent more egalitarian attitudes). As to gender differences in the three countries, the gap is largest in Greece and narrowest in Belgium (no significant difference between men and women). The latter finding was not expected, as we anticipated that men and women would hold more similar views in Sweden than in other countries.

## Exercise 4.3

1. Formulate a hypothesis regarding the effect of respondents’ gender-role attitudes on the household division of labour.
2. Test your hypothesis separately for women and men in each of the three countries discussed in Ex. 4.2.
3. To do so, you should add the gender-role index you created (Ex. 4.2) to the regression analysis you performed in Ex. 4.1
SPSS syntax
*You need to have a copy of SPSS installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.
*Open SPSS by clicking on the appropriate link.
*Open the ESS data by clicking ‘File’, ‘Open’, and ‘Data’ on the SPSS menu bar before you select the folder and the data set.
*Open a new syntax window by clicking ‘File’, ‘New’, and ‘Syntax’ on the SPSS menu bar.
*You can copy the syntax below and paste it into the syntax window in SPSS.
*Execute the syntax using the 'Run' option on the menu bar.

*Commands must always end with a dot.

*The following command causes the cases to be weighted by the design weight variable 'dweight'.

WEIGHT BY dweight.

*Create filter variable - only include respondents from Greece, Belgium and Sweden living with partners. *Female.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=gender = 0 & (cntry ='BE' | cntry ='GR' | cntry ='SE') & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1).
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'gender = 0 & (cntry =BE or GR or SE) & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1) (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE.

*SPLIT FILE splits the active dataset into subgroups that can be analysed separately.

SORT CASES BY cntry.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY cntry.

REGRESSION
/MISSING LISTWISE
/STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA
/CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10)
/NOORIGIN
/DEPENDENT hwkpwd1
/METHOD=ENTER gndridl pphincr wkhct age children.

*Turn off the split file and select all cases.

SPLIT FILE OFF.
USE ALL.

*Create filter variable - only include respondents from Greece, Belgium and Sweden living with partners. *Male.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=gender = 1 & (cntry ='BE' | cntry ='GR' | cntry ='SE') & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1).
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'gender = 1 & (cntry =BE or GR or SE) & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1) (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE.

*SPLIT FILE splits the active dataset into subgroups that can be analyzed separately.

SORT CASES BY cntry.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY cntry.

REGRESSION
/MISSING LISTWISE
/STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA
/CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10)
/NOORIGIN
/DEPENDENT hwkpwd1
/METHOD=ENTER gndridl pphincr wkhct age children.

*Turn off the split file and weight, and select all cases.

SPLIT FILE OFF.
WEIGHT OFF.
USE ALL.
Sample Solution

### Problem

1. Hypothesis: the more egalitarian the gender-role attitudes of the respondent, the more equality in the household division of labour.