# Exercise 4.4

To be able to solve this exercise, you need to have software (SPSS) installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.

1. Sweden and Greece represent two different gender regime types. In which country would you expect couples to spend more time on housework?
2. In which country would you expect men to perform a larger share of the housework?

### Procedure:

• Create a subset including Sweden and Greece.
• Use the T-test procedure to compare the mean number of hours spent on housework on weekdays G22 (hwktwd1) in Sweden and Greece.
• Select male respondents only and use the T-test procedure to compare the mean proportion of housework they perform on weekdays – G23 (hwkpwd1) and, separately, at weekends – G26 (hwkpwe1), .

### Question:

1. Relate the results to the hypotheses stated above.
SPSS syntax
*You need to have a copy of SPSS installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.
*Open SPSS by clicking on the appropriate link.
*Open the ESS data by clicking ‘File’, ‘Open’, and ‘Data’ on the SPSS menu bar before you select the folder and the data set.
*Open a new syntax window by clicking ‘File’, ‘New’, and ‘Syntax’ on the SPSS menu bar.
*You can copy the syntax below and paste it into the syntax window in SPSS.
*Execute the syntax using the 'Run' option on the menu bar.

*Commands must always end with a dot.

*The following command causes the cases to be weighted by the design weight variable 'dweight'.

WEIGHT BY dweight.

*Create filter variable - only include respondents from Greece and Sweden living with partners.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=(cntry ='GR' | cntry ='SE' ) & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1).
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ '(cntry =GR or SE) & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1) (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE.

T-TEST
GROUPS=cntry('GR' 'SE')
/MISSING=ANALYSIS
/VARIABLES= hwktwd1
/CRITERIA=CIN(.95) .

*Create filter variable - only include male respondents from Greece and Sweden living with partners.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=gender=1 & (cntry ='GR' | cntry ='SE' ) & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1).
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'gender=1 & (cntry =GR or SE) & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1) (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE.

T-TEST
GROUPS=cntry('GR' 'SE')
/MISSING=ANALYSIS
/VARIABLES= hwkpwd1 hwkpwe1
/CRITERIA=CIN(.95) .

*Turn off the weight and select all cases.

WEIGHT OFF.
USE ALL.
Sample solution

### Problem

1. In general, we would expect couples to spend less time overall on housework in Sweden as the incorporation of women into the labour force results in less time spent at home (and research has found that the reduction in time women spend on housework is not compensated by an increase in time invested by male spouses).
2. We would expect men to perform a larger share of housework in Sweden due to the egalitarian ideology associated with its family regime.