# Exercise 5.1

To be able to solve this exercise, you need to have software (SPSS) installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.

1. Denmark, Spain and the UK represent different regime types. Based on the logic of gender regime, in which country would you expect working women to experience the strongest family-work conflict? In which country would you expect the least work-family conflict?

### Procedure:

• Create a subset including Denmark, Spain and the UK.
• Select women only.
• Use exploratory factor analysis (principal components procedure) to examine whether items G85-G87 (wrywprb, trdawrk, jbprtfp) and G89-G90 (pfmfdjb, dfcnswk) represent one factor.
• Construct a new variable to represent the mean score of the above items (or only those items that represent the first component in the above analysis).
• Use the means procedure to compare the mean scores of the constructed variable for the three countries.
• For each of the three countries separately, estimate a multiple regression model with the newly created variable as the dependent variable and time spent in market work (par-time) and number of children (children) as the independent variables.

### Questions:

1. What is the meaning of a high score for the variable you created?
2. Do differences in mean scores for the family-work conflict variables conform to your hypothesis concerning country differences?
3. Arrange the results of the regression analysis in a table consisting of three columns (one column for each country). The relevant coefficients for each variable should be listed in the rows.
4. How is family-work conflict related to the number of hours women spend in market work and to the number of children?
SPSS syntax
*You need to have a copy of SPSS installed on your computer, and you should download and use the dataset Family, Gender and Work.
*Open SPSS by clicking on the appropriate link.
*Open the ESS data by clicking ‘File’, ‘Open’, and ‘Data’ on the SPSS menu bar before you select the folder and the data set.
*Open a new syntax window by clicking ‘File’, ‘New’, and ‘Syntax’ on the SPSS menu bar.
*You can copy the syntax below and paste it into the syntax window in SPSS.
*Execute the syntax using the 'Run' option on the menu bar.

*Commands must always end with a dot.

*The following command causes the cases to be weighted by the design weight variable 'dweight'.

WEIGHT BY dweight.

*Create filter variable - only include working women from Denmark, Spain and the UK living with partners.

USE ALL.
COMPUTE filter_\$=gender = 0 & work_sta = 1 & (cntry ='DK' | cntry ='ES' | cntry ='GB' ) & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1).
VARIABLE LABEL filter_\$ 'gender = 0 & work_sta = 1 & (cntry =DK or ES or GB) & (marital=1 or lvgptn=1) (FILTER)'.
VALUE LABELS filter_\$ 0 'Not Selected' 1 'Selected'.
FORMAT filter_\$ (f1.0).
FILTER BY filter_\$.
EXECUTE .

FACTOR
/VARIABLES wrywprb trdawrk jbprtfp pfmfdjb dfcnswk
/MISSING LISTWISE
/ANALYSIS wrywprb trdawrk jbprtfp pfmfdjb dfcnswk
/PRINT INITIAL EXTRACTION
/CRITERIA MINEIGEN(1) ITERATE(25)
/EXTRACTION PC
/ROTATION NOROTATE
/METHOD=CORRELATION.

RELIABILITY
/VARIABLES=wrywprb trdawrk jbprtfp pfmfdjb dfcnswk
/FORMAT=NOLABELS
/SCALE(ALPHA)=ALL/MODEL=ALPHA.

COMPUTE conflict = mean(wrywprb,trdawrk, jbprtfp, pfmfdjb, dfcnswk).
VARIABLE LABELS conflict 'Family-work conflict (index, MEAN wrywprb,trdawrk, jbprtfp, pfmfdjb, dfcnswk)'.
EXECUTE.

SORT CASES BY cntry.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY cntry.

DESCRIPTIVES
VARIABLES=conflict
/STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX.

REGRESSION
/MISSING LISTWISE
/STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA
/CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10)
/NOORIGIN
/DEPENDENT conflict
/METHOD=ENTER partime children.

*Turn off the split file and weight, and select all cases.

SPLIT FILE OFF.
WEIGHT OFF.
USE ALL.
Sample solution

### Problem

1. Hypothesis: We expect working women to experience greatest work-family conflict in the market-dependence regime (UK) and least conflict in the individual-independence regime (Denmark).