Chapter 1: Example and computing
Example: Confidence in the police
Throughout this chapter, we illustrate the statistical methods with analyses of data from the rotating module "Trust in Criminal Justice: A Comparative European Analysis" which was included in ESS Round 5 in 2010. The development of the module is documented in [Jac11a], and findings from it are reported in [Jac11b] [Jac12].
We consider the following five constructs
- trust in the effectiveness of the police (referred to as effectiveness for short)
- trust in the procedural fairness of the police (procedural fairness)
- obligation to obey the police (obligation to obey)
- moral alignment with the police (moral alignment)
- willingness to co-operate with the police and the criminal justice system (co-operation).
A theoretical model for how the constructs are expected to be related to each other is represented by Figure 1.1. This is a simplification and modification of the model in Figure 1 of [Jac12]. In this model, obligation to obey and moral alignment are regarded as dependent on effectiveness and procedural fairness, and co-operation is regarded as dependent on all the other four constructs. A non-zero correlation is allowed between effectiveness and procedural fairness, and a non-zero residual correlation between obligation to obey and moral alignment (denoted by the double headed arrows in the figure).
In a cross-national analysis of these constructs, we may want to answer the following types of research questions:
- How are the constructs measured by survey items? Do the items behave similarly in different countries?
- How do the means and variances of the constructs vary between countries?
- Is the model in Figure 1.1 a good representation of the relationships between the constructs? Is it appropriate for all countries?
- How do the strengths of the associations between the constructs vary across countries?
- [Jac11a] Jackson, J., Bradford, B., Hough, M., Kuha, J., Stares, S., Widdop, S., Fitzgerald, R., Yordanova, M., and Galev, T. (2011a). Developing European indicators of trust in justice. European Journal of Criminology, 8, 267-285.
- [Jac11b] Jackson, J., Pooler, T., Hohl, K., Kuha, J., Bradford, B., and Hough, M. (2011b). Trust in justice: Topline results from round 5 of the European Social Survey. ESS Topline Results Series, 1. European Commission.
- [Jac12] Jackson, J., Hough, M., Bradford, B., Hohl, K., and Kuha, J. (2012). Policing by consent: Understanding the dynamics of police power and legitimacy. ESS Country Specific Topline Results Series, 1. European Commission.