Review questions

  1. Which research field in the social sciences was most central in developing multilevel analysis?
  2. Explain the slope-as-outcomes approach.
  3. Explain the shortcomings of a one-level analysis.
  4. Can multilevel analysis be regarded as a comparative design?

1. Education, school research.

2. The regression coefficients for a sample of schools became the dependent variables in a two-stage OLS regression analysis.

3. The main alternative is to ignore the higher level and conduct the analysis without considering the contexts. This may yield underestimated standard errors and it ignores the contexts as arenas for the individual actions.

4. Yes, it can be seen as a large-N comparative design that follows Przeworski and Teune’s advice to replace countries (contexts) with their values for explanatory variables.

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