Calculate aggregated scores for ‘autonomy’ on the one hand and ‘social well-being’ on the other. You can use the structure we present, or decide for yourself which questions go into each component. Make sure you don’t overwrite any pre-existing variables.
Please note that the variables in the dataset are recoded in such a way that low values indicate low autonomy/supportive relations/trust and belonging, and high value indicates high on autonomy/supportive relations/trust and belonging.
Variables used to measure the concepts:
- ‘ENJSTM - Seldom time to do things I really enjoy’
- ‘DCLVLF - Free to decide how to live my life’
- Supportive relations
- ‘FMLENJ - How much of the time spent with immediate family is enjoyable’
- ‘FMLSTRS - How much of the time spent with immediate family is stressful’
- ‘SCLMEET - How often socially meet with friends, relatives or colleagues’
- ‘PPLLFCR - There are people in my life who care about me’
- ‘INMDISC - Anyone to discuss intimate and personal matters with.
- ‘FLTLNL - Felt lonely, how often past week’
- Trust and belonging
- ‘PPLAHLP - Feel people in local area help one another’
- ‘TRTRSP - Feel people treat you with respect’
- ‘FLCLPLA - Feel close to the people in local area’
- ‘TRTUNF - Feel people treat you unfairly’
- ‘PPLTRST - Most people can be trusted or you can't be too careful’
The first step is to find the weighted (combined weight) mean and standard deviation of each of the variables.
Then you should compute the z-scores by inserting the mean and standard deviation into the formula: z=(variable x – mean of variable x)/standard deviation of variable x. The SPSS syntax for the variable dclvlf: COMPUTE zDCLVLF=(DCLVLF-3.9417)/0.89258. EXECUTE.
The third step is to use the z-scores to compute the aggregated scores of the three concepts; ‘autonomy_user’, ‘trust_and_belonging_user’ and ‘supportive_relations_user’. The SPSS syntax for the variable ‘autonomy_user’: COMPUTE autonomy_user=mean(zDCLVLF,zENJSTM). EXECUTE.
Finally, you should use the variables ‘trust_and_belonging_user’ and ‘supportive_relations_user’ to compute ‘social_WBI_user’.
Then, plot the relationships between income band and the two scores you have created, making sure to include confidence intervals.
- Select ‘Graphs – Line – Multiple’. Select ‘Summaries of Separate Variables’ and click ‘Define’.
- Lines should represent the variables ‘autonomy_user’ and ‘social_WBI_user’and income should be placed in the box for ‘Category Axis’.
- Click ‘Options’ and check ‘Display error bars’.
- Press ‘OK’, or paste the syntax into a syntax window before running it.
If you use the structure as we’ve presented, you should get a graph something like that in Figure 2.3.
How does income seem to determine these two components of well-being?
Solution and SPSS syntax
Focus on the parts of the income distribution where most respondents are (3 600 - 60 000 Euro). As you can see, whilst the social score continues to rise steadily between these bands, the autonomy score actually drops slightly. In other words, aside from the very rich and the very poor, increasing income actually, if anything, has a marginally negative impact on feelings of autonomy.